Sunday, May 17, 2020

Amazing Grace Essay - 795 Words

Using the themes we have examined in this course discuss the situation of the children in Jonathan Kozols Amazing Grace. Who defines them as other? How? What makes them feel like nobodies? What makes them feel like somebodies? What is the role of religion in this daily struggle for human dignity? Drugs, violence, prostitution, pollution, infestation, and sickness of all kinds are present in South Bronx, New York. Unfortunately, children are surrounded and involved in all these problems and more. In Jonathan Kozol’s novel Amazing Grace, an evil reality full of racial segregation and alienation affect the people living in the ghetto. The personalities of these children are changed forever due to the existence of†¦show more content†¦Furthermore, the children feel like they are nobodies because of their segregation from the rest of society. â€Å"It’s skin colour and it’s being poor. This is something more than disrespect. It’s as if they wish you did not exist so they would not have to be bothered.† (Kozol, 41) Strong feelings of rejection make these children believe they are segregated nobodies. The segregation and hatred changes the personalities of the children. In order for the children to remain rational while growing up , they look to their faith. Most children have witnessed so much injustices that they can only turn to religion as a source of comfort and strength to live on. Even racial segregation is present in the churches where people pray for better times. The children pray for the safety of their loved ones and hope that they will live in heaven after death. They believe that God is out there to hear their prayers. â€Å"God hears. He sit up high and look low, even here.† (Kozol, 203) This statement reveals that even though the rest of society may not hear the desperate cries of the people living in the Bronx, but God does. Therefore the people still have hope and struggle to survive. Adolescents think about heaven because death occurs frequently in the Bronx. Everyday the children pray for their protection and well-being. â€Å"God bless Mommy. God bless Nanny. God, don’tShow MoreRelatedEssay on Amazing Grace1770 Words   |  8 Pages Jonathan Kozols Amazing Grace is a book about the trials and tribulations of everyday life for a group of children who live in the poorest congressional district of the United States, the South Bronx. Their lives may seem extraordinary to us, but to them, they are just as normal as everyone else. What is normal? For the children of the South Bronx, living with the pollution, the sickness, the drugs, and the violence is the only way of life many of them have ever known. In this book, theRead MoreEssay on The Analysis – Amazing Grace747 Words   |  3 PagesThe Analysis – Amazing Grace Kiel Carino ENG 125 Professor Olabisi Adenekan October 29, 2012 The Analysis – Amazing Grace The poetry â€Å"Amazing Grace† by John Newton is one of the most famous poems ever written and composed. â€Å"Amazing Grace† has been particularly influential and has affected lives since it was written. The reasons why â€Å"Amazing Grace† is influential are for the same reasons why I found this poem very interesting and engagingRead MoreAmazing Grace by Jonathan Kozol690 Words   |  3 PagesAt first glance and after reading through Amazing Grace, it seems that Jonathan Kozol is going to take us on a journey through the lives of the underprivileged, but similar to the ones you read about, or hear in the news. However, this is not the case; the real underlying theme seems to be how the life and society they live in is very alike to a life in a prison, not because it talks explicitly about prison conditions in this area, but also because their lives are portrayed as being a prison. KozolRead MoreThe Song Of Amazing Grace By John Newton764 Words   |  4 P ages Amazing Grace is one of the most popular hymnals in history. This song was written over one hundred years ago by John Newton. It was created because of John discovering the beauty of God’s grace and why it is important. It was John’s testimony in form of a song however, many of us may be unaware of how John came up with the words to describe such God’s gift. John Newton was once a captain of a slave ship â€Å"One night while aboard a ship called â€Å"The Greyhound† he became face to face with a viciousRead MoreAmazing Grace by Jonathan Kozol Essay788 Words   |  4 Pages Jonathan Kozols book, Amazing Grace, analyzes the lives of the people living in the dilapidated district of South Bronx, New York. Kozol spends time touring the streets with children, talking to parents, and discussing the appalling living conditions and safety concerns that plague the residents in the inner cities of New York. In great detail, he describes the harsh lifestyles that the poverty stricken families are forced into; day in and day out. Disease, hunger, crime, and drugs are of theRead MoreJonathan Kozols Amazing Grace Essay852 Words   |  4 Pagesor are glad to be separated from them. Such is the problem in New York City today and in Mott Haven in Jonathan Kozols Amazing Grace. I have lived in New York City all my life and I had no idea that these problems were going on so close to home. If I live about three miles away from Mott Haven and I am not aware of the situation there, then who is? Chapter 1 of Amazing Grace opens with a startling fact. It tells the reader that when one boards the Number 6 train from Manhattan to the South BronxRead MoreView Of Justice Reflected By Amazing Grace Essay1998 Words   |  8 PagesJustice Reflected in Amazing Grace In the Republic, Socrates starts the discussion with the definition of justice. When Thrasymachus angrily interrupts and gives his own definition, he in fact takes an opposite view on justice and argues that injustice is more advantageous and profitable. Glaucon and Adiemantus further develop Thrasymachus’ view with a theory of the nature and the origins of justice and claim that justice is desired only for the sake of rewards. In Amazing Grace, injustice happensRead MoreEssay about Jonathan Kozols Amazing Grace 1553 Words   |  7 PagesJonathan Kozols Amazing Grace  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚      While reading Amazing Grace, one is unable to escape the seemingly endless tales of hardship and pain. The setting behind this gripping story is the South Bronx of New York City, with the main focus on the Mott Haven housing project and its surrounding neighborhood. Here black and Hispanic families try to cope with the disparity that surrounds them. Mott Haven is a place where children must place in the hallways of the building, because playing outsideRead MoreWhats so Amazing About Grace Book Report Essay741 Words   |  3 PagesCameron Peterson Mr. Oswald Romans Period 4 11 January 2012 What’s So Amazing about Grace? Book Report What’s So Amazing about Grace? is a book written by Philip Yancey. It begins with a twisted story of a prostitute living on the streets. She is unable to feed her two-year old child and has to find another way to earn money. She could not think of any other alternatives and began selling her child out for prostitution. She could make much more money this way than she could in one night. TheRead MoreAmazing Grace865 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Amazing Grace â€Å"When people speak of great men, they think of men like Napoleon – men of violence. Rarely do they think of peaceful men. But contrast the reception they will receive when they return home from their battles. Napoleon will arrive in pomp and in power, a man who’s achieved the very summit of earthly ambition. And yet his dreams will be haunted by the oppressions of war. William Wilberforce, however, will return to his family, lay his head on his pillow and remember: the slave trade

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Bronze statue of Camillus (acolyte) Essay - 653 Words

When approaching gallery 166 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, I couldn’t help but notice the magnificent sculpture of the â€Å"Bronze statue of Camillus (acolyte).† As I began to study some background information on the early Imperial period of Roman culture, one would learn that there was an evident revival. The Romans were building at a fast pace and religious sacrifices were becoming more common. Throughout this Roman period, a Camillus (male) or Camilla (female) was the freeborn child of the religious cults officiant. These young boys were selected to serve during religious ceremonies where sacrifices were customary. The sculpture was assembled to be perceived taller than it really was and stood on top of an approximately 4x4 foot†¦show more content†¦Furthermore, his right arm was at his side with his four fingers curled where he would probably be found holding a jug of wine. Movement was not only conveyed in his just upper body, as the viewer sees that his left leg is found slightly behind his right, with its knee bent and the heel off the ground. Overall, I found the sculpture to represent the generic idea of a Camillus in ancient Rome. The sculpture did a fine job symbolizing how the figures face, short hair, and body would be portrayed as an average human boy. Additionally, I think that most people would portray this figure to be a young boy from ancient Rome, particularly because of his Romanist robe and sandals. A painting that caught my eye while in the museum was â€Å"The Mass of Saint Basil† by Pierre Hubert Subleyras, which was displayed in Gallery 620. During my observation of the piece, I found qualities that matched the â€Å"Bronze statue of Camillus (acolyte).† Similar to the sculpture, the scene on the painting is held in Rome and is portraying a religious Roman ceremony. I was intrigued with the robes and open-toed sandals that the young men on the side were wearing. Not only were the outfits similar, but also the men on the side, and the sculpture of the young boy have the same short and wavy hairstyle. Both pieces are Romans in religious episodes, offering the viewer the impression that this is proper attire for the Romans during this period. Therefore,

Management of Information Security Samples †

Question: Discuss about the Management of Information Security. Answer: Approaches to computer security There are ways to protect ones computer from the security threats. Anti-Malware The users must install anti malware software to protect their computer from all kinds of security threats. Anti-malware must have the capabilities to block spams, should block unwanted pop-ups, must have the capabilities to remove all kinds of virus from the computers, should have a facility to remove spyware. There is numerous anti-malware software in the market however, the users will have to choose the best anti-malware software for maximum productivity (Tsohou et al. 2015). Firewall A firewall is a network security program that protects ones system from unauthorised access, it basically enables or disables traffic based on a definite set of rules (Tsohou et al. 2015). Password Protection Passwords are a simple and easy way to protect ones device, but the users once set the password remain stick with that password in general, they never change their passwords which lead to vulnerabilities of the system. The users must alter their password from time to time be it an email address or online bank passwords to keep the personal data safe and secure. Data backup The users must back up their data from time to time, if the operating system crashes it may be possible that the users may lose valuable data, virus affected computer can lead to system failure too. The users must install backup programs in their system and should backup their data (Tsohou et al. 2015). Basic models used to implement security in operating system Graham-Denning Access Control model It is basically a security model that implements certain protection rules in the operating system. It consists of three different components-a set of objects, a set of subjects and a set of rights. The set of subjects includes process and domain. A set of right consists of create object, create subject, delete object, delete subject, read access right, grant access right, delete access right, transfer access right. Therefore, this model emphasises that both the set of subjects and a set of objects execute based on the set of rights (Stallings and Brown 2012). Military Security Model The information is ranked on the basis of an unclassified, confidential, secret and top secret. It provides the least privilege to the subject; it restricts the subject to access few objects for successfully accomplishing work. The system backup program may be permitted to access the files but do not have the permission to modify the file (Stallings and Brown 2012). Bell-LaPadula Model It is a state machine model which provides security and used for driving access control in government and army applications. The model comprises of the security classes for each subject and object respectively and those security classes are ordered by relation (Balamurugan et al. 2015). The physical security components that can protect ones computers and networks The physical security components for computers Biometric devices Biometric devices are used for capturing biometric data inputs in the form of fingerprints, facial images and voice recognition. It is a method to verify the identity of a living body (Ng et al. 2015). Cable locks With the help of cable lock, laptops can be protected from getting theft. It will also prevent others to access laptop without owners wish (Ng et al. 2015). Security Key The security key enables users to log in the system with a synced password. The users first have to plug in the flash drive, then have to enter the password integrated with the key, if the code matches the users can log in the system (Ng et al. 2015). The physical security components for network The network security devices are as follows- Active devices- Active devices consist of firewalls, malware scanning devices. Passive devices- Passive devices can identify the intruders attack thus can check the intruders entry into the system (Nimkar and Ghosh 2014). Preventive devices- Preventive devices scan networks and identify potential security threats. Unified Threat Management- UTM devices like firewalls serve all the above-said purposes (Nimkar and Ghosh 2014). Steps that organisations can take to improve their security In the organisations, the senior management handles all the resources and budget involved in the information security. The senior managers are aware of the fact that they should take the security issues very seriously, otherwise intruders will attack the system and make it vulnerable, the intruders can steal the private data of the customers (SearchSecurity 2017). i.The organisations know how valuable customers data is, so they take special measures to protect customers data. ii.The organisations create and maintain documentations of all the activities, they spend time, money to keep their company protected all the time (SearchSecurity 2017). iii.The organisations always keep themselves updated that means the computer systems are all updated ones, and the employees are aware of the modern systems. Outdated systems due to lack security updates are vulnerable threats so the companies always avoid that outdated system or software (SearchSecurity 2017). References Balamurugan, B., Shivitha, N.G., Monisha, V. and Saranya, V., 2015, February. A Honey Bee behaviour inspired novel Attribute-based access control using enhanced Bell-Lapadula model in cloud computing. InInnovation Information in Computing Technologies (ICIICT), 2015 International Conference on(pp. 1-6). IEEE. Ng, J., Bragg, D., Foladare, M.J. and Higgins, R.M., At T Intellectual Property I, LP, 2015.Device, system, and method for managing virtual and physical components of a network via use of a registry. U.S. Patent Application 14/743,465. Nimkar, A.V. and Ghosh, S.K., 2014. An access control model for cloud-based emr federation.International Journal of Trust Management in Computing and Communications,2(4), pp.330-352. SearchSecurity. (2017).10 good security habits for keeping your organization secure. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jul. 2017]. Stallings, W. and Brown, L., 2012. Computer security.Principles and practice (2 nd ed). Edinburgh Gate: Pearson education limited. Tsohou, A., Karyda, M., Kokolakis, S. and Kiountouzis, E., 2015. Managing the introduction of information security awareness programmes in organisations.European Journal of Information Systems,24(1), pp.38-58.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Market Entry Strategies Essay Example Essay Example

Market Entry Strategies Essay Example Paper Market Entry Strategies Essay Introduction Market Entry Strategies Sam C. Okoroafo – Modes of Entering Foreign Markets Okoroafo produced an article detailing a four step strategic model that firms should take into account when deciding modes of entering foreign markets. The model consists of four steps: 1. Determine the feasible modes of operation (MOO) There are many modes of operation suggested by many different researchers; however, â€Å"Some countries may prohibit use of some MOOs for reasons related to achieving their economic objectives†. This is supported by the suggestion of barriers to entry or threat of new entrants outlined in Porter’s Five Forces model. This is a factor that should be seriously considered by any firm producing alcoholic beverages as there are more likely to be legislation against the trade of such products. However, Australia has a bilateral agreement with the EU which suggests that importing wine into the Australian market should not be hindered by any laws or legislation su ch as tax or refusing entry into the market. 2. Arrange modes of operation in a continuum The identified modes of operation â€Å"need to be arranged in a continuum of increasing risk and commitment† Okoroafo suggests that the firm needs to start with the mode of entry that is the least risky and requires the last commitment. 3. Choose a mode of operation substitution pattern There are two substitution patterns outlined in Okoroafo’s model the incremental approach or the non incremental approach. The incremental approach â€Å"can be used in markets where environmental factors and host government laws are favourable†. This would be the case for the European firm. Market Entry Strategies Essay Body Paragraphs The non-incremental approach is â€Å"when the firm analyses environmental factors and it may see imposition of mandated countertrade as prohibiting it from exporting to that market†. If this was the case the firm would have to use firm specific factors to decide their mode of entry. 4. Choose a mode of entry Okoroafo suggested that â€Å"it is necessary to distinguish two types of variables† variables which are used to evaluate substitution of all modes â€Å"universal entry factors† or factors which influence specific entry modes, for example â€Å"Export-specific factors† and â€Å"licensing-specific factors†. As the European firm wants to import wine it is likely that they will need to consider licensing specific factors in great detail. Methods of Entry Exporting Exporting could be considered as one of the easiest method of entering the market. The advantages to the firm of only exporting their products is that it has relatively low financial r isk and low set up costs, however it should be considered as to whether the product would be cheaper to manufacture and distribute abroad due to the high costs of shipping such a heavy product as bottles of wine over to Australia from Europe. It is likely that the company will want to use a local agent to sell their product as they will have local knowledge of the market and business contacts in Australia. However this could be disadvantageous to the European firm because it is a possibility that they could lose their brand recognition and authenticity that comes with European wine. Licensing, franchising and subcontracting Advantages of licensing, franchising and subcontracting are that that it is also relatively low cost, similarly to exporting. There is also more control over the operation and distribution of the product, the firm can decide where and how their product is going to be retailed. In franchises, the franchisee also shares the risk of failure with the original firm, a nd they have a direct interest into the success of the brand. This is also coupled with their local knowledge and drive to expand their business. However, licensing and franchising would mean that the European firm has less contact with their consumers than they would have if they were only exporting the products, this also means that they lose direct control of operations, such as quality control and standards. Although franchises means that the risk is shared, it also means that the profits are shared so the European firm would not see as much return on their product sales as they would have hoped. However, this method of market entry may be considered as the European firm will be new to the Australian market and will need some help in establishing their products and brand. Joint ventures When setting up joint ventures and alliances, there is a detailed formal agreement which outlines who is involved in the business, who owns the assets, the management and control of the business, and termination of the venture. This means that there is shared risk, shared knowledge and expertise and ultimately a competitive advantage if two firms are in partnership with each other. However this might mean that the competition is reduced and therefore Porter’s National Diamond framework that suggests that rivalry and competition strengthens a business’ national advantage is weaker. Strategic Alliances, mergers and Acquisitions A strategic alliance is defined in International business 5th edition (Rugman and Collinson) as â€Å"a business relationship in which two or more companies work together to achieve a collective advantage† The benefits of developing a strategic alliance for the European firm would be that they would be able to acquire knowledge of new markets and technology, develop closer links with their suppliers and customers and to reduce the pressure of competing with large competitors who are already established in the Australian market. If the European firm was to consider a strategic alliance it is assumed that it would be with another Australian firm, however, they could identify another European firm who has been successful in the Australian market. Both of these options would have their advantages and disadvantages, if the European firm teamed up with another European firm then they would be able to combine their authenticity of European wine and use that as a unique selling point to the Australians. However, if the European firm was to team up with an Australian firm they would be able to learn more about the Australian culture and market demands. Strategic Alliances have been criticised by a number of researchers who suggest that most alliances tend to fail or disintegrate over time; Ellis, (1996) noted that 60% of all alliances eventually fail. This is supported by research from Segil (1998), â€Å"the rate of alliance success is diminishing. Whereas KPMG (1999) suggested that up to â€Å"83% of mergers and a cquisitions were unsuccessful in producing business benefit for shareholders. These statistics need to be carefully considered before deciding whether or not to develop a strategic alliance with another firm. A merger is defined as â€Å"two organisations who agree to join together and pool their assets in a new business entity†. Whereas an acquisition is defined as the â€Å"joining of two unequal partners† Porter’s Acquisition Strategy (1987) suggests three factors that should be considered before embarking on an acquisition. The attractiveness, where ideally firms should have above average profits in their industry or industry segment. This would make the European firm attractive for an acquisition as they are a global business offering their products around the world; therefore it is assumed that they are reasonably successful in their home country already. The cost of entry is another factor that Porter said firms should take into account before embarking o n an acquisition. This includes the direct costs and indirect costs such as management time and integration costs. This is likely to be more costly for the European firm as they will inevitably have to relocate part, if not the entirety of their business into another country. The third factor that should be taken into consideration is the competitive advantage. This takes into account synergy, where the resources are more effectively exploited by the merged businesses. Although there is significant evidence to suggest that partnerships with other firms such as strategic alliances, mergers and acquisitions are likely to fail there are ways to increase the chance of success, as adapted from Payne (1987), Shelton (1988) and Sirower (1997). These measures include, evaluating the target firm’s competitive position, their culture for compatibility, ensure key resources can be retained after the merger, ensure a realistic price is paid for the target’s stock and plan the post merger process carefully. These measures are to ensure that if a merger does not succeed, the firm is still likely to be successful within the market, regardless of whether they are partnered with another firm. Issues in Cross Border Mergers Issues that have to be taken into consideration before a firm from a different region or country merges with another firm are, the role of the government, advisors and their costs, national culture and business ethics, geography, strategic shareholdings, experience and global corporations. Barriers to Entry Levy Payments â€Å"Federal legislation requires the payment of levies by wine producers and exporters to help fund the activities of the Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation and the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation. Trade agreements â€Å"The Agreement between Australia and the European Community on Trade in Wine signed in Brussels on 1 December 2008 is a formal international agreement that regulates the trade in wine between Australia and the European Community. † â€Å"The ultimate multi-lateral agreement is that involving all 148 members of the WTO. This organisation has been very effective in reducing tariff barriers around the world and also has developed a range of agreements relating to intellectual property, technical barriers to trade and quarantine restrictions. Foreign investment review agencies Australia has a foreign investment review agency that reviews applications for foreign direct investment and approves or disapproves the projects according to whether they benefit the local economy. This can be assessed by considering factors such as local employment, local sourcing of components, transfer of technology and the degree of local ownership (International Business 5th edition) We will write a custom essay sample on Market Entry Strategies Essay Example specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Market Entry Strategies Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Market Entry Strategies Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Native Son Summary essays

Native Son Summary essays In Native Son, by Richard Wright, the main character is 20 year old Bigger Thomas. Growing up poor, uneducated, and angry at the whole world, it is almost obvious that Bigger is going to have a rough life. Anger, frustration, and violence are habits for him. He is an experienced criminal, and unable to handle with his wild mood swings, Bigger often explodes in fits of crazy, aggressive outrage. Bigger has grown up with the opinion that he simply has no control over his life. In his mind, he cant ever be anything more than an unskilled, low-wage laborer. He is forced to take a job as a chauffeur for the Daltons to avoid having to watch his own family starve. Strangely, Mr. Dalton is Bigger's landlord; he owns most of the company that manages the apartment building where Bigger's family lives. Mr. Dalton and other wealthy real estate men are robbing the poor, black tenants on the South Side. What they do is refuse to rent apartments in other neighborhoods to black tenants. By doing this, they create an fake housing shortage on the South Side, and that causes high rents. Mr. Dalton likes to think of himself as a generous man just because he gives money to black schools and offers jobs to "poor, timid black boys" like Bigger. However, his generosity is only a way for him to get rid of the guilty conscience he has for cheating the poor black Mary Dalton, the daughter of Bigger's Mr. Dalton, angers Bigger when she ignores the "rules" of society when it comes to relationships between white women and black men. On his first day on the job, Bigger drives Mary out to meet her boyfriend, Jan. One thing leads to another, and all three of them get drunk. Mary is too drunk to make it to her bedroom on her own, so Bigger helps her up the stairs. Just as he places Mary on her bed, Mary's bli ...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Mahavellis belief of human nature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Mahavellis belief of human nature - Essay Example e writing on the subject of the dos and don’ts of a prince in governing a state, he questions the traditional moral values and Christian virtues that propound the philosophy of truth and honesty. On the contrary he elaborates on the advantages of being manipulative and opportunistic (Mostafa). He argues that it is not for the prince to follow the path of absolute truth and morality as he believes them to create problems in maintaining law and order within the state and the people. He further justifies the trait of hypocrisy as essential in sustaining political career. In other words Machiavelli eulogizes those aspects that Christianity condemns for being lowly and disgraceful. Machiavelli with all his radical statements is often placed against Plato who too dictated the rules of a welfare state but on completely different ideological conditions (Blanchard). It might be said that Machiavelli represents the Renaissance spirit of man as the independent soul aspiring to scale great heights of fame and power. Though his thoughts on the free will of man are appreciated but his idea of weighing everything including humanity and morality in terms of profitable return is criticized (Blanchard). However it becomes evident that Machiavelli shows no regard for humanity and draws a clear cut difference between the ruler and the subjects with the former having all his sympathies. That he was no philanthropist is obvious from his snide remarks on the character of all commonplace mortals. His aversion for humankind shows in his conceptualization of the welfare state and the attributes of the leader, the prince. Had he been a little more sensitive and compassionate he might have noticed the ruthlessness of his ideas and his own pre-conditioned mind set. Unlike the fundamental Christian concept that human being is essentially good, Machiavelli thinks that most human beings are essentially vile. In this respect he does not spare Christ whom he considers a foreigner with the

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

American Export Trade Business Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

American Export Trade Business - Research Paper Example Between 1992 and 2013, average exports by the United States is estimated to be US $103197.71 million and the maximum level in these two decades has reached in December 2012 at US $188686.00 million (â€Å"United States exports†). US primary export items are capital goods, industrial supplies, food and beverages, automotive vehicles, engines and vehicle parts; high tech manufacturing goods remains one of the most important categories of exports. However, in the twenty first century US started to lose comparative advantage on manufacturing of such goods. This paper aims at researching the stake of current US high tech trade deficit and how an improvement in the trade condition would help to improve living standards in the US economy. US export trade The Department of Commerce’s U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Economic Analysis released their annual report of international trade of the US in goods and services for the year 2012 in December that year. The report reveal s that exports of commodities and services by the country increased by 2.1 percent in 2012 since the month of November in 2012 and reached a record figure of $2.20 trillion. The trade deficit in US decreased since the country’s imports have fallen by 2.7 percent during this period (â€Å"U.S. export fact sheet†). Figure: Exports of United States between 2011 -2013 (Source: â€Å"United States exports†) Exports have been an important part of the U.S. GDP and in 2012 the share of exports in GDP was 13.9 percent. This share has improved in 2011 from 2008 (12.9 percent) and has remained steady since 2011 (â€Å"U.S. export fact sheet†). Capital goods form the largest category of export commodities for the US. In 2012, this category of exports was worth $526.7 billion. The leading manufacturing sector for export commodities has been named as the â€Å"motor vehicles and parts sector† (â€Å"U.S. export fact sheet†). High-technology exports The ma nufacturing sector in the US contributes a large section of the country’s GDP that other sectors and has been a driver of economic growth in the country since 1947. This sector is highly engrossed in international trade than other sectors. The manufacturing sector strengthens the growth process by bringing in technological innovation in the other industries. Production of high-technology products require high intensity of R&D. Industries that produce high tech products in the US are aerospace, pharmaceuticals, electrical machinery, computers and scientific instruments (â€Å"High-technology exports (current US$)†). The US manufactured goods account for nearly 35 percent of the total worth of high technology products traded in the international market. Till 2008 US enjoyed high trade surplus owing to high revenue income from export of high tech manufactured goods and royalties earned from the sale of technical know how. 57 percent of the country’s exports were ma nufactured goods. US outpaced its rival countries in the field of technological research and industrial development. Advancement in technology has support the manufacturers in the US